Version 1: Course 1: Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to: define networking and identify network architectures, network topology characteristics, and the major network operating systems; explain the Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI/RM) and its relationship to the packet creation process and TCP/IP; identify the network devices associated with LANs and WANs and the common cable types used in networking, including coaxial, fiber optic, and twisted pair; explain the TCP/IP architecture, including the TCP/IP suite protocols and their respective RFCs; describe the routing process; identify IP address classes and reserved IP addresses; determine default and custom subnet masks; describe various diagnostic tools for troubleshooting TCP/IP networks. Version 2: Course 1: define networking, and identify network architectures, network topology characteristics, cable distribution schemes, and network media and cabling procedures; identify major industry standards bodies, and obtain and read standards documents; compare and contrast various data and voice transmission technologies, including E-carrier, T-carrier, Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); explain the Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI/RM) and its relationship to the packet creation process and TCP/IP; identify the network devices associated with LANs and WANs, and the common cable types used in networking, including coaxial, fiber optic and twisted pair; define networking methods, standards and protocols, and their characteristics; explain the concept of protocol tunneling, and identify elements and benefits of using a Virtual Private Network (VPN) in a convergent network; identify wireless networking equipment and functionality, describe wireless settings, and identify security issues inherent to wireless networks; explain the TCP/IP architecture, including the TCP/IP suite protocols, and common ports and services; describe the routing process; identify IP address classes, reserved IP addresses, IP addressing rules, and methods for IP address conservation; determine default and custom subnet masks, and use CIDR notation; identify the need for Quality of Service (QoS) in convergent networks, and identify QoS technologies; identify the elements and benefits of Virtual LANs (VLANs) in convergent networks; and describe various diagnostic tools for troubleshooting TCP/IP networks. Version 1: Course 2: identify the call processing steps (call setup, call connection, call completion); compare analog trunks and station lines; identify electrical characteristics of ground-start and loop-start analog trunks; identify the various types of E&M trunks; describe different Digital Signal Hierarchy (DSH) technologies; describe Pulse Code Modulation in telephony; identify the functions of CLASS 4 (tandem) and CLASS 5 (end-office) switches in regard to PSTN/GSTN; describe various numbering plans (global, NANP, private); identify the differences between FXO and FXS interfaces; identify safety procedures (cabling, power, grounding, ESD, NEBS); identify troubleshooting tools (4-pair tester, inductor/buzzer/toner), lineman's test handset (butt set), volt meter and laptop; identify various cable terminations (USOC/RJ-nn and ITU/V.nn standards). Version 2: Course 2: define codec, and describe the G.711 protocol; Define Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), and distinguish between the u- Law and A-Law commanding algorithms; explain common feature sets for voice calls, including call waiting, call blocking, call forwarding, call monitoring, callback, and additional private network features; Explain Direct Inward Dialing (DID); Define hunt groups; Identify elements of a call center or contact center, including call routing, caller ID, automatic call distributors, pop-ups, instant messaging/chat, e-mail, real-time voice and data recording/storage, hosted solutions, and elements of Computer Telephony Integration (CTI); explain the purpose of network termination equipment (NTE), including timing, conversion of signaling types, troubleshooting interface; Identify symptoms of improper clocking configuration (e.g., problems with synchronization); Resolve problems when connecting time division multiplexing (TDM) networks (e.g., in-band and out- of-band signaling, digital and analog setup messages, safety practices and standards, crosstalk, split, line imbalance, open, short, grounding issues, echo cancellation in two- wire-to-four-wire hybrids); Identify and use appropriate troubleshooting tools (e.g., four-pair tester, tone-and-probe kit, analog and/or digital butt set, volt meter, time domain reflectometer); identify safety procedures for working with convergent network equipment (e.g., power, proper grounding, electrostatic discharge [ESD], radio frequency interference [RFI], electromagnetic interference [EMI]); Identify basic ISDN services and protocols, including time slots, channels, ISDN2e/Basic Rate Interface (BRI), ISDN30/Primary Rate Inter- face (PRI); define the Q.931, Q.932, I.430 and Q.921/High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) standards, including identifying the typical call progress signals (e.g., alerting, call proceeding, etc.); define QSIG, H.450 (including supplementary services), Digital Access Signaling System 1 (DASS1), private networking, and Digital Private Network Signaling System (DPNSS); Define Signaling System 7 (SS7)/Common Channel Signaling 7 (C7) functions, including call setup, management and teardown; signaling links; signaling points (e.g., service switching point [SSP], signal transfer point [STP], service control point [SCP]). Version 1: Course 3: identify the major industry standards and organizations relevant to convergence technologies; identify components and characteristics of a VoIP network; define the Quality of Service (QoS) technologies used in convergence networks; identify the characteristics of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks; identify the functions of signaling protocols used in convergence networks; configure and utilize an Internet voice connection using Windows Net meeting. Version 2: Course 3: compare and contrast circuit-switched and packet-switched technologies; define the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP) and the Realtime Transport Control Protocol (RTCP); identify the components of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP); identify the functions of signaling protocols for converged networks; compare and contrast the functions of gatekeepers, gateways and proxies in relation to SIP and H.323 devices; identify the essential elements of a convergent network, and list the essential steps for qualifying a network's ability to support convergence; identify common G.7xx codecs and their bandwidth requirements in a converged environment; calculate and estimate bandwidth usage for various codecs, including considerations for overhead and connection quality; explain wireless convergence technologies, including Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and Personal Wireless Telephone (PWT); identify elements of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); identify the features, benefits, problems and management of presenting; list unified messaging methods and benefits; identify common and essential videoconferencing codecs, standards and practices; explain the fundamentals of Internet Protocol television (IPTV); define latency, jitter and wander, and implement methods for reducing each; identify factors that affect the bandwidth of voice and video calls on convergent networks; analyze traffic in a convergent network, and resolve problems using a packet sniffer, monitoring software and hardware solutions; identify types and effects of attacks in convergent networks, including man-in-the-middle attacks, voice mail compromises, viruses, brute- force and dictionary attacks, zero-day attacks, illicit servers, toll fraud and unsolicited calls; and explain the practice and impact of VLAN hopping; and identify types of intrusion detection.